Oenology: Air Defenses
December 4, 2013
WINE, any connoiseur will tell you, is a living thing. And as with other organisms, for it, too, oxygen is a mixed blessing. The element breathes life, but it—or strictly speaking reactive oxygen species (ROS), the byproducts of the process through which cells extract energy from nutrients—can be toxic. Oxygen plays a role in red wines’ normal ageing process. However, through ROS, it can lay waste whites.
Archaeological Technology: Rapid Diggers
September 22, 2013
ARCHAEOLOGY rarely rises to the level of excitement of bullwhip-cracking Indiana Jones. But a new technique to determine the geological origin of artefacts has plenty of researchers aflutter. A team led by Ellery Frahm from the University of Sheffield has found a way to pinpoint the source of artefacts made of obsidian, a glassy rock formed after volcanic lava hardens, on the spot, in ten seconds.
The Origin of MERS: Watching the Detectives
August 31, 2013
IN APRIL 2012, two Jordanians died of a mysterious respiratory illness. Shortly afterwards another man with similar symptoms died in Saudi Arabia. For a moment, though they did not make too much of a fuss at the time, the world’s public-health apparatchiks held their breath—for the cause was a coronavirus, a relative of the pathogen that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Staving Off Microbes: A Bling Offensive
June 21, 2013
SILVER has long been known as more than bling. In the fifth century BC Hippocrates noted its ability to preserve food and water. In the late 19th century silver-nitrate eye drops were administered to newborns to prevent conjunctivitis (though this remedy has since been replaced with an antibiotic). Today silver is routinely found in wound dressings and catheters to treat or prevent infections. Yet, despite its widespread use, the source of silver’s antibacterial properties has remained shrouded in mystery.
Evolution: History Repeating
February 21, 2013
WIND back the tape of life, Stephen Jay Gould once quipped, and the chance becomes vanishingly small that anything like human intelligence would grace the replay. Not everyone agrees. Matthew Herron and Michael Doebeli, from the University of British Columbia, challenge Gould’s logic, at least when it comes to bacteria.
Neutrinos and Solar Storms: And Now, the Space-Weather Forecast
August 23, 2012
RADIOACTIVE materials decay at a predictable rate—so predictable, in fact, that scientists widely use them to date artefacts and geological objects. That, at least, is the received wisdom, which Jere Jenkins and Ephraim Fischbach, from Purdue University in Indiana, think may need revising. In 2006 Dr Jenkins noticed that the decay rate of the radioactive isotope manganese-54 dipped 39 hours before a solar flare came crashing into Earth’s protective magnetic field. Now it seems that the sun might affect other types of decay, too.
Vaccine Technology: No Sow’s Ear
July 10, 2012
KEEPING drugs, and particularly vaccines, potent in tropical climes is a challenge. Heat tends to damage them. Such medicines have therefore to be passed from one refrigerator to another, along what is referred to as a cold chain, until they arrive at the clinics whence they are to be deployed. Fridges, however, are expensive. They also require electricity, which is not always available—or is available only unreliably—in the poorer parts of the world. As a consequence, breaks in cold chains are reckoned by the World Health Organisation to destroy almost half of the vaccines produced around the world.